The attractiveness of seaweeds and microalgae in public opinion and for policy-makers.
Seaweeds are attractive because use can contribute to solving major environmental and social concerns. Away from the petroleum derived chemical toward carbon based chemistry as in use by living organism. Reducing pollution and other disadvantages and in addition related to the extreme long life-time of these substances within the environment.
Water is the single most important substance on this planet. There is nothing living in our world that can do without water. It is the universal nurturer, healer and solvent.
Has the ability to absorb all kinds of substances out of the environment, including air, food, radiation and waves, absorbs light and vibrations. Water is not only important; it is everywhere, wherever you look on this planet. It is in the atmosphere as humidity, clouds or rain, it is in the Earth's crust within the rock and soil fabric, and it is in every living being, animal or plant.
Humans are made up of more than 70% water and if you look on molecular level even 95%.
Water molecules are very small compared to others as present within the cell walls. We are more or less walking water bags or sponges. Water is highly susceptible to changes in cosmic constellation and, because the Earth is largely covered by water, it acts as a mediator between the Cosmos and Earth. Because it is receptive to cosmic information and conveys this information to all living organisms in a subtle way since they are largely composed of water.
Various researchers, such as Prof. Benveniste, Dr. Ludwig and Prof. Schweitzer, have provided clear proof. Tides are a well knows examples of how water reacts to the phases of the moon and other shown variations in water response to other changes in planetary constellation. He found that moving water acts as a receiver, while still water preserves the received information. Most information is known as the natural cycles and do have an effect on earth and life on it like the mentioned cyclic phases of the moon, planetary constellations, sunspot activity, etc and we humans have no say in it.
Others see its as a "whole food" that nourishes our bodies like no other food can. It flushes toxins from the body and supplies many needed minerals and impacts the body in many subtle ways. Like other whole foods, when it is tampered with it loses some of its most precious properties. Apart for drinking purposes it is also used for the disposal and transport of wastes, washing, cooling, heating and a multitude of industrial processes.
Water evaporates from the seas providing the atmosphere with water, which condenses forming clouds and rain. Rain falls to the ground where part of it runs off and flows back into the seas via river systems. The other part of it permeates into the ground and replenishes the groundwater reserves before, after a period of time, feeding back into the river systems. When water runs off without percolating through the ground, it is passing through what could be termed an half hydrological cycle.
When it takes the detour through the ground as groundwater it is carrying out the full hydrological cycle. This detour of water through the ground is immensely important. When the hydrological cycle is tampered with and the natural full cycle is reduced, or the environment contain toxic substances we are making ourselves prone to natural disasters, not really natural disasters, because they are a result of man's intervention but do effect health and wellbeing.
According to the old Chinese medicine an imbalance associated with the water element is indicated by: adrenal exhaustion, general fatigue, hearing loss, premature aging, bone problems, urinary problems, infertility, memory difficulties, back pain and knee weakness.
Alkalinity of natural water is determined by the soil and bedrock through which it passes. Alkalinity also needs to be high for the high pH water to have a strong medical affect and protects us or buffers against rapid pH changes.
The idea that alkalinity is separate from pH (which is by 'coincidence' called either acid or alkaline) is a myth though pH and alkalinity are two different measurable parameters of water. Even though the pH can be very high we find that un-mineralized water has little ability to neutralize acid in the stomach to initiate the production of bicarbonate in the bloodstream.
Alkalinity is the water's capacity to resist changes in pH. That capacity is commonly known as "buffering capacity." For example, if you add the same weak acid solution to two vials of water - both with a pH of 7, but one with no buffering power (e.g. zero
alkalinity) and the other with buffering power (e.g. an alkalinity of 50 mg/l) - the pH of the zero alkalinity water will immediately drop while the pH of the buffered water will change very little or not at all. The pH simply expresses the degree of hydrogen ion concentration at a given time while alkalinity is the true measure of acid-neutralizing capacity, which includes the bicarbonate (HCO3-1), carbonate (CO3-2) and hydroxide (OH-1) ions. It is measured in mg/l or ppm as CaCO3 Low quality acid demineralized water leads to dehydration as well as disease. The hallmark of all tumours is low cellular voltage and low CO2 levels as well. These researchers say that, "Cancer cells and tissues, regardless of their origin and genetic background, have an aberrant regulation of hydrogen ion dynamics leading to a reversal of the intracellular to extra cellular pH gradient in cancer cells and tissue as compared to normal tissue. This perturbation in pH dynamics rises very early in carcinogen sis and is one of the most common pathophysiological hallmarks of tumours." Notes  Bamberger and Avron 1975 Plant Physiol 56: 481-485.
The pollution of our planet through careless and greedy use (or, should we say, misuse) of its resources has brought about the inevitable pollution of water, inevitable because water is everywhere. "Not only does water covers much of the earth but it pervades the skies. It fills your cells - and to a much greater extent than most people is aware of. Because it is an excellent solvent wills absorbs and transport all kind of materials and chemicals, mostly man-made and present within the modern type environment, many of them being toxic for organic life forms. Because the water molecules are so small it will enter almost any surface through pores and holes.
Everybody does known and realise that Water is absolutely central to human health but forget that it is very easy to pollute or contaminate. That the water we want to drink must have characteristics that go beyond simple purification. Imbalances in water associated or can cause illnesses including nervous problems, phobias, depression, lethargy, circulatory conditions, such as low or high blood pressure, arthritis and other diseases of the joints and certain digestive ailments.
The human body best seen as a bioelectrical water machine that requires approximately a litre (quart) a day for every 25 kilos (55 pounds) of body weights. Because water molecules have a positive and negative pole, they behave like little magnets. They attach themselves to their neighbouring molecules and form clusters of several hundred molecules. These clusters are very sensitive structures and vibrational influences can impress themselves upon them. Play a part in component identification and cellar communication within our body.
The ideal water is high in pH and specifically highly alkaline because it is rich in magnesium and other minerals like bicarbonate. The ideal water is properly structured, making it easy to fully hydrate oneself - which is more difficult than most of us believe. One would think all water hydrates equally but this is not the case.
Micro & Macro algae.
Another important fact is that all life started in the oceans (water), our common origin. Life's watery beginning continues to be present in all living processes, plant, fish, birds and animal alike. Seawater has almost the same proportion of minerals as the human blood. All living creatures on earth with whom we are acquainted are comprised of complex carbon compounds immersed in liquid water. Carbon chemistry in terrestrial organisms proceeds by chemical reactions in the medium of mineral water -- an amazing substance with a whole set of properties which make it ideal for our kind of life.
Among the most noted uses for marine plants is the use for food and as medicine. Seaweed has been a dietary supplement for hundreds, if not thousands, of years to people whose cultures have evolved by the sea. The benefits of sea plants are well known.
In the west, seaweed is best known as an exotic ingredient in Japanese and macrobiotic cuisine. The benefits of seaweed are commonly enjoyed in Iceland, Scotland, Ireland, Hawaii and other Pacific Islands and coastal regions of the United States.
An unopened treasure chest of good nutrition, seaweed absorbs nutritive elements directly from the ocean water in which it lives. Most varieties of seaweed contain between 10 and 20 per cent protein and are rich in fibre and vitamins, including A, C, E, B complex and minerals, including calcium, iodine, potassium, iron and trace minerals.
Many physical ailments in both humans and their companion animals can be prevented or sometimes resolved with the simple addition of a little seaweed to their respective diets. However you have to act in the here and now to reap the benefits later. People consider themselves healthy unless they are ill or overweight, a kind of borderline health. Optimum health is more. For optimum health you need to achieve vitality, mental clarity, and improved digestion.
Algae & seaweed.
The attractiveness of seaweeds and microalgae in public opinion and for policy-makers is not only explained by its potential economic benefit. Seaweeds are also attractive because use can contribute to solving some of the major environmental and social concerns that are dominant nowadays. Society demands now that this is done in a sustainable way with combinations of ecosystem services smartly chosen to make them strengthen instead of hamper each other. There is growing consensus that the most promising global-scale biomass solution is represented by microalgae since they are Mother Nature's most efficient practitioners of photosynthesis (the fixation of carbon dioxide), resulting in the highest yields of biomass and oils among all aquatic species, which are in turn an order of magnitude more efficient than terrestrial plants.
The chemical composition of algae makes it suitable for conversion into biofuels. In general, microalgae are potential sources of bio-oils whilst macro algae or seaweeds are potential sources of carbohydrates for fermentation or thermo-chemical based conversions and include the production of sustainable chemicals.
Microalgae can be cultivated in brackish water on non-arable land, and therefore may not incur land use change, minimizing associated environmental impacts. Utilizing marine biomass, which can be grown in a variety of marine environments including fresh water and salt water, near the shore and offshore avoids the problem of additional land use.
Utilizing the marine environment ensures a large cultivation area, limiting competition with other land uses and resources. Marine protein production can be of particular relevance for coastal activities and fisheries communities that are under pressure due to declining fish stocks and a decline in available fishing grounds.
Micro and Macro algae or algae cell to be seen as a mini (micro) chemical manufacturing plant, able to produce and contain an amazing wealth of chemical components: more than 60 different sometimes highly complex and active marine substances. This is the only link we know of able to realize the organic substance synthesis from mineral elements. The major minerals are instrumental in all kinds of life-sustaining activities in your body. Most enzymatic functions depend on minute amounts of these bio-available trace minerals.
It contains a range of polysaccharides; proteins, minerals, and some species produce higher value compounds such as alginates, fucoidan, and mannitol. In addition, algae is a suitable feedstock for bio refinery for co-production of chemicals and fuels to attain optimum valorisation. Similar to how crude oil is refined in both fuel and fine chemicals; the value of algae is greatly increased if the parts of the biomass that cannot be converted into fuels are utilized for food, feed, chemicals, cosmetics, biomaterials or even pharmaceutical applications.
In order to generate significant volumes of biomass for any biofuel industry, cultivation will be required in the long-term. Cultivation can occur, subject to appropriate licences, either at near shore locations, or offshore. Over the last number of decades different cultivation systems for seaweeds have been developed and improved ranging from intertidal fixed and floating bottom farms for Eucheuma/Kappaphycus and Gracilaria (e.g., Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand) to elaborate floating net structures for Porphyra and long-line systems for kelp in China, Korea and Japan.
Modifications of long-line systems for use off shore and deep water production and amongst them a novel ring system from Germany. These new cultivation systems show that there is potential to develop large-scale ocean cultivation of seaweeds. However, existing cultivation and harvesting technology is labour intensive and needs to be optimized to reduce costs and energy demand.
Several designs and pilot systems have been developed for floating cultivation systems (farms) in open sea. There is the possibility that cultivated macro algae may be deployed through integration with existing aquaculture enterprises including production of fish.
Able to take and concentrate minerals in a watery environment a thousand times and become bio-available to humans and animals.
Plants, seaweeds and algae inhale carbon dioxide, take the carbon and let go of the oxygen forming bio-chemical products with hydrogen and minerals. We as human and other animals inhale oxygen and use it to oxidase the previous form bio-chemical products, extract the energy and exhale carbon dioxide. It's a lovely relationship. That's the way it works.
"Carbon dioxide is, in fact, a more fundamental component of living matter than is oxygen. Life probably existed on earth for millions of years prior to the carboniferous era, in an atmosphere containing a much larger amount of carbon dioxide than at present. Carbon dioxide exerts at least three well-defined influences:
1. It is one of the prime factors in the acid-base balance of the blood.
2. It is the principal control of respiration.
3. It exerts an essential tonic influence upon the heart and peripheral circulation.
Because carbon dioxide is absolutely crucial to life and because it is an absolutely essential component of protoplasm, and because therapeutic increase of carbon dioxide is the most effective means of improving the oxygenation of the blood and tissues, we need to finally learn about sodium bicarbonate and why we should use it so much in general medicine, cancer treatment, and as a frontline medicine against the new antibiotic resistant pathogens that are spreading out from hospitals now into people's homes.
There may even have been a time when there was no free oxygen available in the air," wrote Dr. Yandell Henderson from the Cyclopaedia of Medicine, 1940. He also said, "Carbon dioxide is the chief hormone of the entire body, it is the only one that is produced by every tissue and that probably acts on every organ." according to Henderson.
Algae and seaweed are rich in minerals also known as ash content.
This is the only link we know of able to realize the organic substance synthesis from mineral elements. The major minerals are instrumental in all kinds of life-sustaining activities in your body. Commercial fertilizers are used on large scale to increase crop yields but provide only three elements to these crops being nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. So, farmers can grow something that looks like food, but they're only putting three elements or minerals back into the soil and no more.
It's a strip-mining operation with no easy solutions, and putting back three elements is not going to do it from a quality of food prospect/view. The health consequences of mineral depletion of crop soils are severe, two billion people out of the six billion inhabitants of the planet are suffering from micronutrient malnutrition and it is not without reason that the ancient people going back to Sumer did advice ''that no diet is complete without adding some products of the sea or water including fish or seaweed which are rich sources of minerals''. At the basis is the fact that when life did move form living in the sea, lakes and rivers to occupy land the access to minerals became more difficult and became limited.
You-just like me, animals and fauna-are made up of water and about 90 different minerals. When we are born, we have these 90 trace elements in our body but in Time start to lose some and they need to be replaced. It is the replacement and conditions or the chemical mechanism needed plus availability of these minerals that count.
The only way they can be replaced in the body is in an organic form, bio-available, chelated or colloidal. It affects the DNA replicating itself within our bodies, which happen many millions times in a day, and every replication needs a specific mineral to catalyse it. When there is a missing element-whether it be cobalt, selenium, gold, tin or platinum it will stop, they're missing. The long-term result of the mass demineralization of the population is that we end up with chronic disease acceleration, and if we are living longer hold no real true other tan being just a number to boost about.
While transient sub-optimal nutrition may be forgiven, a constant diet lacking in these micro nutrients will adversely affect every function, structure, and detoxification functions of the human cells, our metabolism will suffer, leading to diseases. (e.g. Iodine) That is one of the reasons why it is good to use food grown in the sea like fish, shellfish and seaweed. Seaweeds and seaweed supplements offer food ingredients like dietary fibres, minerals, trace elements, protein and lipids. Stimulating many different kinds of biological activities, and a high antioxidant capacity. Low in calories but despite that an abundant source of many different nutrients and dietary fibres.
When large numbers of people have to live in a confined space, removing waste becomes problematic. Both micro- and macro algae are able to digest and effectively remove nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metals such as As, Cd, and Cr from aqueous solutions. Since emission control and wastewater management are costly and technically demanding, the use of wastewater as a source of nutrients for algae production, coupled with wastewater treatment are added environmental and economic benefits. By mechanical isolating the algae these can than be used to produce crude and a mineral rich ash. Algae absorb freely available sunlight and can utilize waste streams to provide essential nutrients for this cultivation. Algae can convert waste CO2 from power plant exhaust gas to organic biomass, which can then be re-converted into energy. Moreover, municipal wastewater streams can be harvest to provide additional nutrients, just like plants they do need nutrients to grow.
Microalgae are already reported to produce 15–300 times more oil for biodiesel production than traditional crops on an area basis. Furthermore compared with conventional crop plants, which are usually harvested once or twice a year, microalgae have a very short harvesting cycle (1–10 days depending on the process), allowing multiple or continuous harvests with significantly increased yields.
Overall, by adopting integration approaches, such as wastewater treatment, nutrients and heavy metals recovery by algae culture, whereby additional economic benefits are created the obstacle of high cost of biodiesel production from algae may be overcome. The ash content of micro and macro algae can be very high and sold to producers of bio fertilizers.
First it is important to define the term bio-fertilizer.
When an organic farmer says, "I'm going to put manure on my field," that's fine, but before the plants can use it it must be broken down by microorganism and bacteria to liberate the carbon atom and become a basic and inorganic element. Water will help to dissolve it and the plant can than pick it up. Everybody thinks that the only good food is food that gets manure put on it. The fact is that the manure must be broken down and the sad part is that the chemical farmers use a readily available product for the plant without need for pre-treatment by bacteria. These artificial fertilizers don't have very many elements, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus but at least they are elements that can be used right away without conversion. Missing are the minerals and trace elements needed to produce healthy and nourishing components.
Like mentioned before, water or rain, acid rain result in mineral losses of the soil and you can respond/compensate by adding small amount of seaweed or algae to your food, the feed of animals or back into the soil and the plants add it. Algae can pickup and concentrated these micro and macronutrients in there tissue and such a way/shape that we can digest and use it in our body being bio-available.
Ash is made of basic elements and cannot as such be used by humans and animals and even do damage to health. Ashes belong in the soil and best to be mixed with artificial produced fertilized and gives it an added and important value.
Seaweed and seaweed products.
From a 'profit' perspective macro algae or seaweeds are attractive because they can be used in a wide range of applications, for example:
• Seaweed can be used directly for human consumption and has been used as a dietary supplement for hundreds, if not thousands, of years to people whose cultures have evolved by the sea.
This is the dominant application worldwide, seaweed being a common ingredient in the Asian menu (the most familiar dish is sushi). In Western cuisine, direct consumption of seaweeds is generally less common, some coastal communities being the exemption to this rule. The benefits of sea plants are well known. The benefits of seaweed are commonly enjoyed in Iceland, Scotland, Ireland,
Hawaii and other Pacific Islands and coastal regions of the United States. An still partly opened treasure chest of good nutrition, because seaweed absorbs nutritive elements directly from the ocean water in which it lives.
Most varieties of seaweed contain between 10 and 20 per cent protein and are rich in fibre and vitamins, including A, C, E, B complex and minerals, including calcium, iodine, potassium, iron and trace minerals.
.• Seaweed is being used for the Production of hydrocolloids. This is currently the second largest application of seaweeds. Hydrocolloids (alginate, agar, and carrageenan) are commonly used in the food industry as thickener.
• Use of seaweed as animal feed, for poultry and fish has a long history. In coastal communities seaweeds were gathered onshore and fed to animals. In Island, Scotland and Ireland seaweed grazing was not uncommon and used to replace stock when these were not available. Because of the nature grazing animals and fish are best adapted to eat relative large amounts of seaweed. (5-15%)Current research focuses on the use of seaweeds as replacement for dominant feedstock such as soy and fishmeal.
• Pharmaceutical and the chemicals industries are interested in seaweed as a renewable source of fine chemicals and medicine. Research into the functional characteristics of seaweeds is on-going.
• Bioactive substances inside the different seaweed species can be extracted to produce products suitable for utilisation in health and functional food applications.
Components of seaweed have shown positive effects in the treatment of various diseases.
Reduce eutrophication of seas through strategic positioning of production facilities because nutrients are taken up during growth and removed by harvesting the seaweed.
• Use of seaweed and algae as an alternative source of marine protein of fish meal in fish feeds, reducing overfishing.
• Reduce dependency on soy import for feeding livestock and thereby combat deforestation in soy producing countries.
• For use of the production of fine chemicals and bio-fuel reducing fossil fuel usage.
From a 'people' perspective, seaweed production and utilisation is attractive for the following reasons:
• Seaweeds are a potential source of bioenergy, with various production processes available. Interest in the use of algae as a source of biofuels has become technical feasible and need to prevent shortage in the future including possible market disturbances. The use of bioethanol as an alternative steadily increases around the world. Accordingly, there have been significantly increasing endeavours on the technology development that facilitate the transformation of bio renewables into transportation fuels.
To meet this end, many technologies have employed sugar- and corn-based biomass for the industrial production of bioethanol, especially in Brazil and U. S., respectively. While they contributed a lot to the commercialization process, the viability of the so-called 1st generation biofuels is somewhat questionable because of their conflict with food supply.
The key factor influencing biofuel efficacy is whether native ecosystems can be maintained or not. No matter how effective biomass is for producing ethanol, its benefits quickly decrease if all the tropical forests are being razed to make energy crops, leading to another type of a large amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission pathway.
To solve this crisis, a new type of biomass is now being developed and their biofuels can be produced locally in sustainable systems. The seaweeds (macro algae) be an excellent alternative raw material as a new marine biomass for biofuel production growing along the shallow coastal area of many countries and easy to cultivate.
It mainly consists of polysaccharide complexes of fibre and agar whose basic monomer is glucose and galactose residue, respectively.
Generally, there are five major bottom lines for a bioethanol process to be economically viable: the feedstock must be plentiful, inexpensive, in high energy conversion rate, in low demand for food industry, and finally, has to be cultivated in sustainable systems. Most seaweed shows very fast growing rate (4 - 6 harvest cycles per year) with high CO2 fixation ability. Furthermore, they can be mass cultivated using seawater and free sunlight without any need of nitrogen-based fertilizer which has been a significant source of GHG that also destroys stratospheric ozone. In addition, they do not contain any lignin that has to be eliminated prior to hydrolysis step, which has been a major obstacle to increase production cost in lignocellulose process. Furthermore, the seaweed has ability to absorb nitrogen and phosphorous thereby purifying sea water which leads to oceans' sustainability.
The second-generation biofuels are derived from non-food feedstock. They are not only extracted from microalgae but also other microbial sources, ligno-cellulosic biomass, rice straw and bio-ethers, and are seen as a better option for addressing the food and energy security and environmental concerns.
Our global economy literally runs on energy. Economic growth combined with a rising population has led to a steady increase in the global energy demands. If the governments around the world stick to current policies, the world will need almost 60% more energy in 2030 than today. It is now estimated that China and India alone would need about 45% of the total amount of fossil oil produced worldwide to meet demand. Energy security concerns are forcing countries world over to look and shift to alternatives like biofuels in the form of bioethanol, biodiesel etc. Since biofuels can be produced from a diverse set of crops each country is adopting a strategy that exploits the comparative advantages it holds with respect to such crops and will differ. It is important to develop a clear strategy and road map for the bioenergy sector and utilizing the biomass resources available optimally; to benefit the bio-economy.
In addition, from a 'planet' perspective, seaweed production is attractive because it can also contribute to tackling climate change through the production of biofuels. The chemical composition of algae makes it well suited for conversion into biofuels. In general, microalgae are potential sources of bio-oils whilst macro algae are potential better sources of carbohydrates for fermentation or thermo-chemical based conversions.
Micro algae are microscopic algae that typically range from uni-cells to colonies and filaments of up to a few hundred cells. Microalgae include prokaryotes (cyanobacteria and blue-green algae) and eukaryotes (green algae, diatoms, red algae and others. There are thousands of microalgae species, only some of which have been studied for biofuel production. Microalgae are particularly suited to biofuel production due to their high photosynthetic growth rates, high lipid content, low land usage and high carbon dioxide absorption. Despite that the costs for aquatic biomass production for energy applications are currently too high to compete with bio energy applications from biomass produced on land. However, there is potential to improve the value of algae if the parts of the biomass that cannot be converted into fuels are utilized for food, feed, chemicals, cosmetics, biomaterials or even pharmaceutical applications.
About 26% of fossil oil alone is used for transport of material and products worldwide and therefore an economic necessity. Given the virtually unlimited thirst for energy (the world's largest industry by far) it is likely that many of these approaches will lead to commercial implementation, with the most efficient, scalable and cost-effective ones having global impact and with others having impact in certain regions by virtue of geographical and/or political considerations. Among the former there is growing consensus that the most promising global-scale biomass solution is represented by algae since they are Mother Nature's most efficient practitioners of photosynthesis (the fixation of carbon dioxide), resulting in the highest yields of biomass and oils among all aquatic species, which are in turn an order of magnitude more efficient than terrestrial plants. Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded than on the basis of energy density alone (i.e. neglecting likely differences in handling costs), the cost of transporting crude bio-oil should be approximately six times less than that of transporting wood chips or other types of raw biomass (at equivalent energy content).
This suggests that biomass transportation costs could be reduced by converting biomass to bio-oil at the point of harvest, and then transporting the bio-oil to a centralized bio refinery for further processing into fuels and chemicals or to a location where it can be directly utilized (such as a power plant). A problem associated with algal biomass is the relatively high water content. It normally requires pre-treatments to reduce the water content and increase the energy density. This requirement consequently increases the energy cost. However, direct hydrothermal liquefaction in sub-critical water conditions can be employed to convert the wet biomass to liquid fuel without reducing the water content. In order to generate significant volumes of biomass for any biofuel industry, cultivation will be required in the long-term. Cultivation can occur, subject to appropriate licences, either at near shore locations, or offshore. While the algae industry is relatively well developed for food, feed and nutraceutical applications, along with high value products, algae for biofuel is in its infancy.
The high biomass productivity of both micro and macro algae, along with favourable biomass compositions, make them ideal feedstock's for conversion into a range of biofuels.
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