Many of others and us have and did observe the vast quantities of seaweed on coast and within the seas. The questions like what can I do with it, is there a market nearby, properties, processing. Written with a minimum of technical language and designed as guide to applications only. Way in which you can profit by utilizing this natural and renewable resource. Different species can be used for the same application and will depend on your locality, tropical, semi tropical or cold regions.
Introduction to algae
Drawing together expertise from a broad range of scientific disciplines, social sciences, engineering and environmental science, research as published into the utilisation of algae/seaweed ranges.
Seaweeds has many uses. Traditionally consumed as food in several cultures, notably in Japan and China, as feed for al kinds of animals. In coastal areas of Northern Europe and America, during winter periods, at other localities during drought when other feeds were scarce, sheep could graze on the shore and cows were offered kelp that had been previously harvested, rinsed and dried. During World War I, oat and forage shortage resulted in first large scale use of seaweed in France, cattle and horses.
Used in medicine, as crude drugs for treatment of iodine deficiency related diseases (goitre, Basedow's disease and hyperthyroidism), intestinal disorders, as vermifuges, and as hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycaemic agents.
Numerous industrial ingredients such as hydrocolloids (agar-agar, alginates) used in stabilizers, thickeners and fillers, pigments, vitamins, chelated micro-minerals (selenium, chromium, nickel, arsenic) and prebiotic substances in the form of complex carbohydrates (alginates, fucose-containing polymers, mannitol and laminarin).
Organic mineral rich fertilizers which are usually rich in potassium but poorer in nitrogen and phosphorus.
.Red seaweed of the genus Gracilaria and green seaweed of the genus Ulva have been found to be suitable species for bioremediation. Extracts, the production of food additives and food structuring, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and fine chemicals. Seaweed is also used in integrated aquaculture systems organic and in-organic waste water treatment.
Brown algae live primarily in shallow waters or on shoreline rocks and have very flexible stems that allow them to withstand the constant pounding of the waves. This area and used by local communities for recreation, shoreline fish and small sea algae rafters. Seaweeds based near shore location nest many invertebrates that are food for arthropodes and coastal birds. High collection rate of seaweed for either animal feed, alginate production or as source of biofuel might alter equilibrium of the coastal ecosystems. Recent research has linked wild harvest of kelp in Norway to detrimental impacts on fish abundance and the foraging efficiency of birds. It is brown seaweeds that mainly reproduce sexually and exist in two forms (large sporophyte and microscopic gametophyte) what is harvested is the sporophyte form and best protected where it is located naturally.
The unique chemical composition of seaweeds and their fast growth rates offer many new opportunities for bio refining.
We have learned from the past that the technical and culturally developments of society depends or analogue to the amount of energy they can produce.
In this article we argue that cascading bio refinery valorisation concepts are viable alternatives to only using seaweeds as carbohydrate sources for the fermentative production of biofuels. because of the size and effect on the environment should be developed and done so offshore.
Seaweeds can develop under variable environments. However, every seaweeds have requirements for water salinity, nutrients, water movement , temperature and light. Seaweed cultivation depends on their way of reproducing. However, many challenges remain with respect to use of seaweeds for use as medicine and chemical production, such as the large seasonal variation in the chemical composition of seaweeds including the location. When seaweed reproduce vegetative, some pieces of seaweeds can be tied to rope or nets that are suspended between wooden stakes or they can be simply placed at the bottom of a pond without fixation or forced to the bottom using a fork-shaped tool in sediments and using sand-filled tubes in sandy soil.
Once seaweeds have grown to a suitable size, they are harvested. In vegetative propagated seaweeds, the harvest is done either by removing the entire plant or by removing most of it but leaving a small piece that will grow again. When the whole plant is removed, small pieces are cut from it and used as seed stock for further cultivation.
It is the brown seaweeds that mainly reproduce sexually and exist in two forms (large sporophyte and microscopic gametophyte) what is harvested is the sporophyte form and differ.
1 Fermentation Technologies
2 Separation Technologies
3 Enzyme Technology
4 Algal Biotechnology and
5 Bio fuels
Waste water treatment.
Seaweeds and micro algae have been busy cleaning water from there existence onwards. If that was not the case our sea and oceans would have turned into sewages. It is much cheaper and efficient to use these properties and product produced in the process as called bioremediation.
• 1) Bio waste products with high nitrogen content will be used for Cultivation of algae.
• 2) Algae and bio waste will be used for production of biogas.
• 3) Residues from biogas production will be used for soil improvement / enhancement.
• 4) Biogas will be upgraded to Liquid Biogas (LBG)
Future for micro and macro algae.
• 1. Large-scale production of micro algae is still a challenge.
• 2. Large-scale production of macro algae must be offshore.
• 3. A new bio refinery concept is needed to extract high value products as Proteins, food & feed ingredients, materials etc. before end use for Energy.
• 4. Macro algae are the new biomass resource for the next decades.
• 5. Micro algae is an important raw material for high value products