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Even before Egyptian civilization arose out of the jungle swamps of the Nile delta, Mesopotamian civilization had emerged from the delta marshes of the Tigris and Euphrates, today Iraq. The Mesopotamians were not only concerned with flood control and irrigation but also with urban water supply and the creation of water highways for there boots and barges. Both the Euphrates and Tigris are unpredictability and vary a lot, a major problem. The Nile is much more stable and the coming of the floods and high can be predicted. The Mesopotamians developed and build a system of canals, dikes, reservoirs more complex than most people do imagine. At 3000BC, every major Mesopotamian city was the centre of a canal network reaching to the outermost limits of the city’s authority. The most famous man-made waterway in ancient Mesopotamia was the 400 foot wide Nahrwan Canal, used for irrigation.

Did run parallel too the Tigris for more than 200 miles. Another famous canal was 30 miles long and used to supply the capital of Nineveh with fresh water. To cross a wide gully a great aqueduct was needed and took two million stone blocks to build. Mesopotamia is a big river delta and rocks and stone are rare and have to brought in and cut in a quarry. The people in Mesopotamia use clay to produce bricks for building purposes while the Egyptian used stone for the more important buildings.

The lifecycle of stones is much longer than the tingles used in Mesopotamia.



Climate; in between 30,000 and 15000, the climate in the Persian Gulf, Arabia and Africa varied including the rainfall.

From 15,000 B.C., rainfall diminished drastically. Faced with increasing aridity, the Paleolithic (nomadic) population moved north along the Tigris and Euphrates, westward toward the moist Mediterranean coast, south to the Nile.

Between 6000 to 5000 B.C., came a period called the Neolithic Wet Phase when rains returned to the Gulf region. The reaches of eastern and northeastern Saudi Arabia and southwestern Iran became green and fertile again. Foraging populations came back, and there was rainfall on the intervening plains.


Sumerians, Ubains, Atlanteans

The appearance of technically more advanced humans who knew how to breed and raise animals, which made distinctive pottery, inclined to cluster in settled groups, now called the Ubaid. They are the founders of the oldest of the southern Mesopotamian cities, Eridu, about 5000 B.C. Though Eridu,

and other cities like Ur and Uruk. The Ubaidian presence can be traced to the coast of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, moving (migrating) down the coast into the river valleys . Proven by their settlements, graves and distinctive pottery which turned up? The islands of Bahrain and Failaka developed into a major trading post, the Hong Kong of Arabia, "a rich hub of international trade, with ships coming and going between Mesopotamia the Indus Valley civilization, China and Atlantis.

"The origin of the Ubaid & Sumerians; a broad-headed people, were physically and linguistically quite different from the indigenous population and one of the great unsolved mysteries of history. A civilization emerging fully developed without the long, painful process of evolution like all the others. The sudden urban settlement of southern Mesopotamia by a people from overseas who brought with them the necessary skills and political organization to control in such a region."


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