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From the beginning, water has furnished man with a source of food and a way to travel and trade. The first civilizations developed where water was a dominant element in the environment, big rivers, plains or delta’s, close to the Sea or Ocean.
Associated with the big rivers like the Amazone, he Tigris-Euphrates of Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, Indus of northern India and the Hwang Ho, or Yellow River located in China.
The Babylonians, the most famous lawmakers of antiquity, devised edicts regulating water usage. The Egyptians introduced the 365-day calendar in response to the Nile’s annual flooding. The Chinese to build a 1000 mile canal, a complex system that after 2,500 years is still partly in use. The Hwang Ho, or Yellow river, is also known as” China’s Sorrow”, so erratic and dangerous that in a single big flood one million people died. Even before Egyptian civilization arose out of the jungle swamps of the Nile delta, Mesopotamian civilization had emerged from the delta marshes of the Tigris and Euphrates, today Iraq. The Mesopotamians were not only concerned with flood control and irrigation but also with urban water supply and the creation of water highways for there boots and barges. Both are unpredictability and vary a lot, a major problem. The Nile is much more stable and the coming of the floods and high be predicted. The Mesopotamians developed a build a system of canals, dikes, reservoirs more complex than most people do imagine. During 3000BC, every major Mesopotamian city was the centre of a canal network reaching to the outermost limits of the city’s authority. The most famous man-made waterway in ancient Mesopotamia was the 400 foot wide Nahrwan Canal, used for irrigation.
Did run parallel too the Tigris for more than 200 miles. Another famous canal was 30 miles long and used to supply the capital of Nineveh with fresh water. To cross a wide gully a great aqueduct was needed and took two million stone blocks to build. Mesopotamia is a big river delta and rocks and stone are rare and have to brought in and cut in a quarry.
US and Egyptian archaeologists discovered at a distance of 13 km from Nile River, in Abidos, 12 large boats that belonged to Pharaohs of First Dynasty. The age of the boats is about 5,000 years. They are believed to be the most ancient vessels located in the world today. "The origin of the Sumerians, a broad-headed people, who were physically and linguistically quite different from the Semites, is one of the great unsolved problems of history. The archeologist digging, dating and collecting pottery managed to get most pieces (info) in place, locations, period, kings, priests, development etc.
There was one mystery or surprise, the Sumerians. This civilization emerging fully developed without the long, painful process of evolution like the others. Their familiarity with ships points now to Atlantis. The Atlantean/Ubaidian presence down along the coast of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia has been proven by their settlements, graves and distinctive pottery which turned up. The islands of Bahrain and Failaka turned into a trading post, the Hong Kong of Arabia, "a rich hub of international trade, with ships coming and going between Mesopotamia the Indus Valley civilization and Atlantis. Both there and on the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia are tens of thousands of tumuli---far more than the sparse indigenous population would have accounted....The sudden urban settlement of southern Mesopotamia by a people from overseas who brought with them the necessary skills and political organization to control in such a region." "The Sumerians themselves always claimed that their ancestors came 'out of the sea.'
A brilliant Assyriologist named Benno Landsberger advanced the theory in 1943 that these names were all linguistic remnants of a pre-Sumerian people who had already named rivers, cities-and even some specific trades like potter anti coppersmith-before.
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